نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات

2 گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

محوطه چم­سوران در حوضه رودخانه راوند در غرب روستای لرینی آجودان در شرق شهرستان اسلام‌آباد استان کرمانشاه واقع‌شده و شامل محوطه وسیع و روبازی از دوران پارینه ­سنگی است که پیرامون یک برون‌زد افیولیتی شکل‌گرفته است. این محوطه نسبت به سایر محوطه­ های پارینه­ سنگی روباز منطقه از وسعت بیشتری برخوردار بوده و پراکندگی دست­افزاری نسبتاً زیادی دارد. ازآنجا که منشایابی منابع ماده خام سنگ نقش بسیار مهمی در بازسازی شبکه­ های فرهنگی و ارتباطی در دوران پیش‌ازتاریخ ایفا می­نماید، منشایابی دست­افزارهای سنگی این محوطه، برخی مسائل مطرح‌شده در خصوص فناوری استحصالِ دوران پارینه­ سنگی و ارتباط آن با دسترسی به معادن و کانسارهای سنگ را موردبازنگری قرار می­دهد. بر این اساس، ترکیب عنصری تعداد 8 نمونه دست­افزار سنگی و 8 قطعه برداشت ­شده از نمونه­ های چرت طبیعی جهت شناسایی منابع زمین­شناسی احتمالی و ارتباط آن‌ها با یکدیگر به روش طیف­سنجی پلاسمای جفتی القایی به آزمایشگاه Act labs کانادا ارسال و مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. طبق بررسی­های شیمیایی صورت گرفته در این پژوهش، نمونه ­های سنگ برداشت‌شده از برون‌زد چم­سوران با نمونه قطعات دست ­افزارهای پراکنده در سطح محوطه ازنظر عناصر کمیاب همخوانی داشته و نیز این تطابق عناصر در نمونه­های چرت با منشأ رودخانه­ای نیز دیده می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sourcing of the Paleolithic artifacts of Cham-e Souran, Ravand River basin, western part of the Central Zagros

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Adib zadeh 1
  • Hamed Vahdati Nasab 2

1 Department of Archaeology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Unit

2 Archeology Department, Tarbiat Modares University

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Cham-e Souran is located in Ravand basin in the west side of Larini Adjudan village, which is in the east side of Islam Abad, Kermanshah. It includes the wide area and an open site of Paleolithic formed on an exposed ophiolite. Compared to the other open sites of the Paleolithic, this site extended to an outdoor area and has a relatively large dispersion of tools. Since, source routing of cherts have a very important role in reconstructing cultural and communicative networks in prehistoric times. Source routing of the stone tools in this archaeological site, re-examine some issues of the Paleolithic tool-making technology and its relation with access to mines and stone deposits.Accordingly, the elemental composition of sample eight by eight pieces taken from samples of chert stone and natural geological sources to identify their potential and their connections with each other with the method of the Mass Spectroscopy Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), sent to the Act labs laboratory in Canada and were analyzed. According to chemical analysis conducted in this study rock samples collected from outcrops Cham-e Souran with the artifacts scattered all over the area, matches the rare elements. This compliance can be seen in river’s cherts as well. The distribution of artifacts in some parts of the riverbank is much more than the exposed terraces
dominated the river. Based on this dispersion pattern, it seems that the easy access and the river stone abundance in this era have priority compared to other deposits of this study.The chemical composition of sediments and fine-grained sedimentary rocks is an important factor in the study of source rocks and sedimentary environment of sedimentary rocks (Taylor & McLennan, 1985).Materials and Methods
Since, the chemical and mineral composition of the used stone as stone tools is similar and comparable to a large extent with sedimentary rocks of the study area, studies the chemical composition of the stone tools along with data from other studies, such as petrography, is very useful for source routing of the used natural materials.In order to study the geological source used for the manufacture of stone tools, small amounts of each sample to less than 74 microns were powdered in Agate mortar. In the next step, soft samples were sent to Act Labs Company’s laboratory in Ontario, Canada. In this laboratory, about 25.0 grams of each sample were solved in multi-acid digestion method at four acids, including hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrofluoric acid (HF), nitric acid (HNO3) and perchloric acid (HCLO4) and then measured by ICP- MS machine. To investigate the dispersion pattern of elements and compare the chemical data (trace and rare earth elements) with the average composition of the Earth's crust data, according to Taylor and McLennan (1985), and Rudnick and Gao (2003), the obtained data from the analysis of studied sample were normalized. Based on the obtained geochemical evidence, it seems that the stones used in the study of Chame Souran’s stone tools, have been taken from mafic-ultramafic deposits of the studied region in theophiolite territory in the range of Islamabad valleys and Souran’s ophiolite veins of the exposed irregularities and nearby river.Dispersion pattern of artifacts components and stone tools around the river can be seen in thelong journey along the river, indicated human groups in this region during the Middle Paleolithic stone searching for sources of stone used in tools have picked up their most required stones from Chert riverbed pebbles. Most of the river Cherts samples are respectively in a range of brown, darkred and gray colors.Results and DiscussionBased on the chemical analysis conducted in this study, rock samples collected from Cham-eSouran’s outcrops and the artifacts parts scattered in the area were consistent in terms of rare elements as well as the matching elements in samples of river chert pebbles too.The studied artifacts samples in this area in terms of density of chip components were muchmore in some parts of the riverbank rather than the rest, including exposed terraces overlooking the river.According to the dispersion pattern seems that it was in a priority use in this period rather than other deposits in the study area in terms of easy access and abundant river stone resources.Yet, despite the Harold Dibble Theory (1984) about the lack of resources of the MiddlePaleolithic stone in the central Zagros and multiple retouching of tools due to the lack of access to suitable stone resources, it can be said that in fact re-done retouching on Dibble samples in thisperiod were the manifest of special tooling industry in the central Zagros and basically it had nothing to do with the lack of stone resources and afresh retouching of this time tools cannot be connected to the lack of chert stone resources. However, this hypothesis should be studied andtesting other Paleolithic artifacts collections of the area should be consolidated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cham-e Souran
  • Paleolithic
  • Source routing
  • Zagros