نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 مؤسسه ژئوفیزیک کاربردی لایب نیتس (LIAG)

3 علوم خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 مرکز تحقیقات اقیانوس شناسی هیلمولتز (GEOMAR ) آلمان

چکیده

خواص مغناطیسی واحدهای لسی دوره کواترنر، که با خاک‌های قدیمی در شمال ایران متمایز می‏شوند، مدلی برای درک فرایندهای خاک‌ساز و ارتباط آن با بارندگی کنونی و اقلیم گذشته در این منطقه ارائه می‏دهد. در این مطالعه تجزیه‌وتحلیل طیف‌سنجی بازتابی انتشاری (از این پس DRS) در آزمایش‌های اندازه‌گیری رنگ و همچنین پذیرفتاری مغناطیس وابسته به دما (از این پس χ-T ) در محیط آرگون از توالی لس‌ـ خاک قدیمی اواخر پلیئستوسن در منطقه چنارلی در شمال ایران ارائه شد. بدین منظور مواد معدنی اکسید آهن مغناطیسی، مگنتیت، ماگهمیت، هماتیت، و گوتیت در لس و خاک قدیمی شناسایی شد. نتایج DRS نشان داد نسبت هماتیت به گوتیت با روند فرایندهای خاک‌ساز و بارندگی و تشکیل خاک قدیمی ارتباط مثبت و قابل توجهی دارد. داده‌های این تحقیق همچنین نشان داد تشکیل ماگهمیت خاک‌ساز و انحلال آن نقش مهمی در تقویت و کاهش پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی در توالی‌های لس‌‌‌ـ خاک قدیمی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of magneto-thermal receptivity and color changes in loess-old soil sequence in Chenarli region, northeast of Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Ghaffarpour 1
  • Farhad Khorramali 1
  • Christian Rolf 2
  • Hossein Tazke 3
  • Martin Kohl 4
  • Manfred Front 2
  • Christian Ziden 2

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Libez Institute of Applied Geophysics (Liag)

3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Sciences

4 Hilmoletz Oceanic Research Center (Geomar) Germany

چکیده [English]

Introduction
The magnetic properties of the loess units of the Quaternary period, which are distinguished from the old soils in northern Iran, provide a model to understand the soil-forming processes and its relationship with the current rainfall and the past climate in this region. In this study, the analysis of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (hereafter DRS) in color measurement experiments as well as temperature-dependent magnetoabsorption (hereafter χ-T) in argon environment of late Pleistocene old loess-soil sequence in Chenarli region in northern Iran was presented. . For this purpose, magnetic iron oxide minerals, magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and goethite were identified in loess and old soil. The results of DRS showed that the ratio of hematite to goethite has a positive and significant relationship with the trend of soil-forming processes and precipitation and the formation of old soil. The data of this research also showed that the formation of soil-forming maghemite and its dissolution play an important role in strengthening and reducing magnetic receptivity in old loess-soil sequences.Methodology
After initial microscopic studies, suitable samples of thin section were prepared and sent to Iran Mineral Processing Research Center for analysis. The analysis performed in this center is performed by the electronic microprocessor model CAMECA-SX 100 made by the French company Cameca. This device is equipped with a spectrometer with an electron diode receiver and works automatically based on a high accuracy of 1% and the simultaneous operation of several diode detectors and electron beam stability with a carbon coating.
Result and discussion
Volcanic activities in the middle part of the Central Alborz Mountain were started about 1.8 million years ago with the eruption of lava and pyroclastic rocks, which has caused the formation of the current Damavand cone, in the northern part of of Tehran. Damavand trachyandesites in Lar region have hyaloporphiric and microlitic porphiric texture with main phenocrysts include feldspar (oligoclase to labradorite), clinopyroxene and amphibole, and mica, apatite and opaque titanomagnetite to ilminite minerals. Mineral chemistry studies of clinopyroxenes show that these minerals with a percentage (Wo14-47, En0.1-47, Fs7-85) show the composition of diopside, which are in the range of calcium pyroxenes, magnesium-iron and alminodiopside. High Magnesium Number (80-79 = Mg #) of studied clinopyroxenes, shows that trachyandesites of Lar region generated from the low evolution and low-silica parent magma. The zonation of clinopyroxenes with Fe3 + fluctuations indicates the oxidant environment of the magmatic reservoir of these rocks, which is also confirmed by the high amounts of Fe3 + mica. Changes in the amounts of calcium and silica from the core to the rim of these minerals indicate crustal contamination of these rocks. The amphiboles composition is magnesium hostengite and mica show the composition of phlogopite. Phlogopites are characterized by Fe # <0.33, TiO2 6.03 - 7.7% and high Mg # number. Mineral chemistry studies indicate the sub-alkaline nature of the host magma. Thermo-barometric studies of clinopyroxenes show these minerals form at temperature range between 1112 to 1191 (± 50) ° C and pressure range of 6.2 to 6.9 kb, at depths of 20 to 22 km, with a water content of about 10%. Amphibole has a water content of about 4 to 7% and high oxygen fugacity range from -5.83 to -6.15. Thermal anomalies related to geothermal activity have been revealed based on remote sensing models that theoretically confirm the existence of hot zones containing melt at shallow depths. According to other researches, there is an unexposed igneous mass at a depth of about 22 to 35 km, which is somewhat consistent with the results of geophysical models based on a high-velocity P-wave mass at a depth of about 20 km below Damavand volcano (old cone area). Existence of non-equilibrium textures such as co-occurrence of aqueous and anhydrous minerals, reactive margins of phlogopites and amphiboles, non-equilibrium corrosion texture in feldspar, oscillatory and normal zoning and oscillation of iron oxides between the core to the rims of clino-pyroxene minerals indicate that Magmatic evolution of Lar lavas take place in an open system with different pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and water content. Oxygen fugacity and water content of magma have increased during ascent to higher sections. Multiple magmatic chambers at different depths can be a justification for the local thickening of the crust under Damavand volcano.
Conclusion
The composition of phlogopites with Fe # <0.33, TiO2 6.3 to 7.7% and magnesium number (Mg #) is high and the formation temperature is 912 to 995. Mineral chemistry indicates the sub-alkaline nature of the host magma. Earth-temperature barometric studies of clinopyroxenes show that these minerals are formed in the temperature range of 1112 to 1191 (± 50) ° C and pressure of 6.2 to 6.9 kg, at depths of 20 to 22 km, with a water content of about 10%. Amphibole water content is about 4 to 7% and its fugacity is -5.83 to -6.15.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • iron oxides
  • loess sediments
  • North of Iran
  • soil preparation processes
  • Quaternary