نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری باستان شناسی، گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مهر تیموران در گروه مهرهای استوانه‌ای به سبک هندسی قرار دارد که از تل تیموران، شرقی‌ترین محوطه شناخته‌شده فرهنگ شغا تیموران در حوضه رود کر با وسعتی برابر با 8 هکتار از محوطه‌های اصلی فرهنگ شغا تیموران به‌دست‌آمده است. فرهنگ شغا تیموران در فارس، فرهنگ موازی با حکومت عیلام میانه (نیمه دوم هزاره دوم قبل از میلاد) است. به‌استثنای تل ملیان تاکنون آثار شاخصی از ارتباط محوطه‌های مناطق مرتفع (انشان) با مناطق پست (شوش) در دوره عیلام میانه به دست نیامده است. جنس مهر تیموران عاج  و یافته‌ای قابل‌توجه در شمال شرق فارس محسوب می‌شود. در حوضه رود کر یا منطقه انشان به‌جز تل ملیان در دیگر محوطه‌ها گزارشی از مهر استوانه‌ای در هزاره دوم ق.م در دست نیست. شاید مهر تیموران شاهدی بر ثبت و ضبط کالا در تل تیموران است. از طرفی جنس مهر نیز نشان از تزئینی بودن آن داشته و عوامل ذکرشده بیان‌کننده این است که مهر تیموران در هر دو دسته مهر و مهره قرار خواهد گرفت. گاه نگاری مهر تیموران بر مبنای تاریخ‌گذاری مطلق تل تیموران نیمه دوم هزاره دوم ق.م است. فعالیت‌های گرده‌شناسی در تالاب‌های اطراف حوضه رود کر نشان از تغییرات اقلیمی ملموسی در این دوره زمانی دارد و مهم‌ترین عامل در تغییر الگوی استقراری در محوطه‌های شغاتیموران محسوب می‌شود. نکته حائز اهمیت در تعاملات فرهنگی در حکومت عیلام میانه در دو کانون آن یعنی انشان و شوش تغییرات اقلیمی در این برهه زمانی است که بیانگر اقلیمی گرم و مرطوب نسبت به ادوار قبل و بعد است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Taimuran Seal, Evidence of Anshan and Susa Cultural Interactions in Middle to Late Second Millennium BC

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habib Emadi 1
  • Kamaledin Niknami 2

1 PhD student in Archaeology, Department of Archeology University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Intruduction
The discussions surrounding the Taimuran seal primarily focus on ancient production techniques, technologies, trade routes, and patterns. It explores the functionality of seals (within the structure and mechanisms of societal control) and the patterns of cultural and political interactions with neighboring powers, particularly those in southern Mesopotamia. The seals reported in Fars province are predominantly made of stone. Considering the aforementioned factors, the Taimuran seal findings are significant within the Tol-e Taimuran site. This discovery indicates a connection with eastern regions of Fars, specifically the Indus River Valley in terms of material composition, and with the elevated regions of Fars or Anshan (highlands) with Susa (lowlands) in terms of form. The main point of interest and inquiry regarding the Taimuran seal is the application of this discovery and the motif of the Taimuran seal as a distinctive finding in understanding the interactions among significant regions such as Shush and Anshan within the middle-Elamite region.
Tol-e Taimuran (Timaran) consists of two ridges at a distance of 90 meters from each other. The main oval Site with an area of 7 hectares with a west-east slope, is located in the southwest of the Koushk-e Tavabeh village neighborhood and 100 km northeast of the center of Fars province, with geographical coordinates 39 R 0718341 3292841 and 1579 m ASL.
Materials and methods
During the excavation in Tol-e Taimuran, Taimuran seal were found from Su15 in A operation. The most debatable characteristic of the Taimuran seal is its material. So far, no cylindrical seals made of organic materials have been recorded in Fars. Ivory is the most prominent material feature of the Taimuran seal. Other ivory objects have been reported at the ABC operation in Tol-e Malyan, but the cylindrical seals obtained from Tol-e Malyan did not have an organic composition. The lack of evidence such as sealing or beads makes it difficult to definitively determine the purpose of the Taimuran seal. In the longitudinal perforation section of the seal, traces of greenish patina are visible, and this factor plays a significant motif in determining the function of the Taimuran seal. It indicates the use of copper or bronze rods for suspending the mentioned seal. Considering factors such as material, motif, and uniqueness of the finding, it is challenging to determine whether the sealing or cosmetic. However, as mentioned earlier, some objects have had both functions simultaneously. An important point to note here is that unlike most Iron Age seals reported from graves, the Taimuran seal was found in a non-funerary context. The engraved design on the seal or its geometric style and material do not match with comparable cases (geometric style seals from the 2nd millennium BCE), which further contributes to its intriguing nature. The motif of this Susiana seal is evident, but the material of the finding is more similar to the seals from the Indus River Valley. A considerable number of seals with geometric styles comparable to the Taimuran seal have been identified in Susa.
Conclusion
The cylindrical seal of tol-e Taimuran can be considered as evidence that the connection with the lowlands of the Middle Elamite rule cannot be solely attributed to Tol-e Malyan, and this connection also existed with the easternmost known cultural area of Shogh Taimuran. The Taimuran seal are significant findings in understanding the cultural interactions in the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE in the Anshan region as an important part of the middle-Elamite rule. With appropriate fieldwork activities, further conclusive evidence can be obtained regarding the connections between other sites in the Kur River Basin (Anshan) and the Susiana Plain within the middle-Elamite rule. The geometric motifs engraved on the Taimuran seal are not comparable to any of the ceramic motifs from the Shogha Taimuran culture, and the motif of this seal is more comparable to seals from western Iran, particularly the Susa region, indicating the importation of this artifact to Tol-e Taimuran. Finally, Palynology studies in the wetlands around the Kur River Basin suggest tangible climactic changes in this time period, serving as the major factor in the change of the settlement pattern in Shogha Taimuran sites significant aspect to contemplate regarding the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE and the formation of the middle-Elamite rule is the climate changes that played a crucial motif in the cultural interactions between the lowlands (Susa) and highlands (Anshan).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tol-e Taimuran
  • Geometric style
  • Ivory
  • middle-Elamite rule
  • Cylindrical Seals