نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکده جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی محیطی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشکده جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی محیطی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 پژوهشگاه علوم زمین اوراسیا، دانشگاه صنعتی استانبول، مسلک، استانبول، ترکیه

چکیده

دریاچه آبزالو در جنوب شهر قلعه‏خواجه، مرکز شهرستان اندیکا، در شمال‌شرق استان خوزستان، در دامنه ارتفاعات زاگرس چین‏خورده، زیر واحد ایذه، در تقسیم‏بندی ژئومورفولوژیکی واقع شده است. برای تعیین محیط‌­های رسوبی طول هولوسن پسین دریاچه آبزالو، تعداد 8 مغزه رسوبی از بخش داخلی دریاچه برداشت شد. عمق متوسط مغزه­های رسوبی 5 و بیشینه عمق 5/7 متر است. رخساره­‌های رسوبی براساس بافت رسوب، نوع کانی­های تبخیری، وجود مواد آلی، تغییرات رنگ و سایر مولفه­های ماکروسکوپی، شناسایی و تفکیک شدند و نمونه‌برداری براساس تغییر در نوع رسوبات و رخساره‌های رسوبی انجام گرفت. تعداد 36 نمونه رسوبی از 2 مغزه جهت آنالیز عنصری با دستگاهICP-OES  و دستگاه XRF (X-Ray fluorescence) انتخاب شد و نیز تعداد 3 نمونه مورد آنالیز سن‌سنجی به روش ایزوتوپی C14-AMS قرار گرفت. تعیین پارامترهای آماری، نمودارهای هیستوگرام فراوانی عناصر و آنالیز خوشه‌ای به منظور تعیین ارتباط عناصر با یکدیگر در محیط نرم افزار SPSS انجام پذیرفت. در این پژوهش با توجه به بررسی‌های انجام گرفته از نسبت‌های عنصری V/Cr، Mn/Al، K/Al، Rb/Al، Si/Fe، Ti/K جهت بازسازی وضعیت اقلیمی و محیطی، میزان مواد آواری ریزدانه (معلق و رسوبات رسی) ورودی به حوضه، شدت هوازدگی و فرسایش در حوضه آبریز و نوسانات سطح آب دریاچه استفاده شد. براساس آنالیز سن‌سنجی، بازسازی اقلیم و جغرافیای گذشته دریاچه آبزالو حداقل در 5 هزار سال گذشته انجام گرفت. با توجه به بررسی‌های انجام گرفته حداقل دو دوره پرآبی و دو دوره خشک در طول هولوسن پسین (5000 سال گذشته) شناسایی شد. دوره‌های مرطوب از 1800 تا 500 سال پیش در یک دوره 1300 ساله و از 4400 تا 2500 سال پیش در یک دوره 1900 ساله طول کشیده است. دوره‌های خشک، با مدت زمان کوتاه‌تر از دوره‏های مرطوب، از 2500 تا 1800 سال پیش در یک دوره 700 ساله و از 4400 تا 4700 سال پیش در یک دوره 300 ساله امتداد داشته است. دوره های خشک در منطقه با ورود رسوبات گرد و غبار همراه بوده است. مشخصه دوره های مرطوب نیز افزایش در میزان فرسایش و هوازدگی در حوضه آبریز می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Geochemical study of Abzaluo Lake subsediment according to reconstruct the climatic and geomorphological conditions in the Late Holocene

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Darvishi Khatouni 1
  • Samad Fotuhi 2
  • Hossein Negaresh 2
  • Ali Mohammadi 3

1 Geomorphology, Faculty of Geography and Environmental Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchistan

2 Faculty of Geography and Environmental Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchistan

3 Eurasian Geoscience Research Institute, Istanbul University of Technology, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

چکیده [English]

Introduction

Lake basins have spatially and temporally index patterns and represent valuable maps of physical and chemical history. According to this point, that direct survey of climate changes has only been available as machinery in the past few decades, so past’s climate changes indexes can give a better understanding of climate changes in the past era and its causes. Of these, lake sediments have an extraordinary ability to record climatic and environmental events with high sensitivity and resolution and very high- resolution amounts. Therefore, lake sediments can be considered as regions for detecting paleontological environments. Abzalou lake formed in the northeast of Khuzestan province on the hillsides of folded Zagros and under the Izeh unit in a pit. This study has been tried to by Sedimentary geochemistry examination, Elemental ratios, identification of sedimentary facies, identification of sedimentary environments and changes of these environments set to the reformation the climatic and environmental conditions of Abzalou wetland in the end Holocene.

Methods and Findings

The steps of this research include book studies, field works, laboratory works, data processing and then interpretation and conclusion. To investigate the paleontological climate and conditions of the sedimentary environment, 8 intact sediment cores with a maximum depth of 7.5 m and total of 35 m collected with using Auger corer. 36 sediment samples from 2 cores were selected for elemental analysis with ICP-OES and XRF (X-Ray fluorescence). Also, 3 samples were analyzed by C14-AMS isotopic method. Statistical parameters, histogram diagrams of element frequency and cluster analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the elements in SPSS software. In this study, according to the studies, elemental ratios of V/Cr, Mn/Al, K/Al, Rb/Al, Si/Fe, Ti/K were used to reconstruct the climatic and environmental conditions. Which led to the study of the amount of detrital material, the severity of weathering and erosion in the catchment and fluctuations in the water level of the lake.

Results and discussion

In the studied cores, 8 major sedimentary facies identified. Facies often contains clay, silt, sand, gravel, and interstitial sediments along with vegetation and shell fossils which in most cases frequency and interference in the mentioned sediments are often seen. Changes were in particle size between clay to gravel due to process type changes, environment's energy and river input's amounts and sediment color variations concerning sedimentation conditions, presence of organic matter, pH amount, salinity and temperature variations, and drought occurrence, throughout the cores. Three wetland sedimentary, river and alluvial environments identified. According to the age measurement, the average sedimentation rate in the Abzalou wetland is 1.22 mm / year, which this amount is different for various depths. Due to the type of sediments, the Abzalou wetland has undergone human changes for about 600 - 500 years ago. The high water period of the Abzalou wetland has been established between 1800 and 500 years ago. The study of the facies sediments of the wetland bed shows that climate change occurred gradually (not suddenly) about 1800 years ago and this trend has taken at least 200 years. The relatively dry period lasted about 700 years from 2500 years to 1800 years ago and is confirmed with the reported dry periods in the Maharlou lake about 1800 years ago, in the Mir Abad lake about 1500 years ago and in the Urmia lake between 2500 and 1500 years ago. From 4400 years ago to about 2500 years ago, stable and slow wetland conditions prevailed. The conditions for creating a peatland environment have been provided in the wetland and were associated with increasing the amount of organic matter, vegetation and shell fossils and consequently increasing sedimentation rate. This period which lasted for about 1900 years, has been accompanied by extremely humid conditions, high groundwater level and activity of springs feeder in the region. The existence of light brown mud which has the age ranges from 4400 to 4700 years ago, indicates a dry period (300 years). This dry period shows suitable approximate conformity with a dry event of 4200 years ago in the northern hemisphere. This period in the studied region appeared with at least 200 years of temporal delay. After this dry period, we see again a gray sequence with plant and shell fossils that continue to a depth of 7 meters (about 5300 years ago). At depths of 7 to 7.5 m, the existence of brown-muddy sediments along with coarse-grained sediment in size of gravel, pebble and rubble, strengthen the possibility of very strong flood in the region that sent the coarse-grained sediments of around formation to bed of the wetland or maybe has hit to the area of wetland sediments bed in the region.

Conclusion

According to the results of surveys in the Abzalou wetland, at least 3 high water periods with humid climate and at least 2 dry periods during the Late Holocene were identified.  Dry periods appear more suddenly and with more intensity and shorter duration than humid periods in the region and gradually lead to from very dry periods to semi-arid, semi-humid, and eventually humid periods.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paleoclimate Change
  • Sedimentary Geochemistry
  • Sedimentary Core
  • Late Holocene
  • Abzalu Lake